SWAP Habitat
Madrean Montane Forest & Woodland
NVC Name
Madrean Montane Forest & Woodland
SWAP General Vegetation Type
ALPINE and MONTANE VEGETATION
The Madrean Montane Forest and Woodland [M011] is found in lower to mid-montane elevations (1,460-2700 m (4,790-8860 ft)) of the Arizona-New Mexico Mountains and Madrean Archipelago ecoregions, and isolated locations in the mountains of the Chihuahuan Desert ecoregion. Tree canopies are 15-30 m (49-98 ft) tall and dominated or codominated by Arizona pine (Pinus arizonica), Apache pine (P. engelmannii), Chihuahuan pine (P. leiophylla), and occasionally Arizona cypress (Cupressus arizonica). Often, these species are codominated by evergreen oak trees such as Arizona white oak (Quercus arizonica), gray oak (Q. grisea), silverleaf oak (Q. hypoleucoides), canyon live oak (Q. chrysolepis), and Emory oak (Q. emoryi). An open to moderately dense shrub layer can be present and include encinal, chaparral, or montane shrub species such as agave (Agave spp.), pointleaf manzanita (Arctostaphylos pungens), Fendler’s ceanothus (Ceanothus fendleri), alderleaf mountain mahogany (Cercocarpus montanus), Sonoran scrub oak (Q. turbinella), and Wright’s silktassel (Garrya wrightii). Substrates generally are rocky with lithic soils, but include finer-textured alluvial soils along streams. Stands with a grass-dominated understory tend to occur on less steep and rocky slopes and have finer-textured soils. Under historic natural conditions, lower to mid elevation stands varied from open woodlands (10 20% cover), with pines dominating the overstory and perennial bunch grass dominating the understory, to moderately dense woodlands (20 40% tree cover), with a less dense herbaceous layer and more tree and shrub cover. Fire regimes vary from mixed severity (surface and canopy fires) to low severity (mostly frequent surface fires, e.g., savannas).

Species that live in Madrean Montane Forest & Woodland

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